In most team sports, the winner is determined based on the total number of points accrued by competing teams. In most cases, the winning team is that which records a higher score; however, a tie or draw can occur in which competing teams record an equal total score, necessitating a method of breaking the deadlock.
In combat sports, scoring is often based on the number of blows delivered in each round or a specific number of success criteria within a round. These criteria can include points given for a knockout or other similar factors. These types of scoring systems can also be applied to esports, which are competitions based on video games and other computer software.
Many other sports have unique point metric systems, some of which are difficult to place into any one category. For example, in association football and hockey, the scoring system is based on goal accumulation, while in baseball, a player scores by running around all four bases and touching home plate without being caught by the opposing team’s defense.
Several different questionnaires have been developed to assess motivation in sport, and each differs in their conceptualization and level of applicability. For example, the IMI provides an in-depth assessment of situational intrinsic motivation but does not include subscales for extrinsic motivation or amotivation. Conversely, the TEOSQ is designed to measure dispositional goal orientations and has acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha 0.89). Other important factors in selecting an instrument include its development, administration, and scoring, as well as its sensitivity and responsiveness.